Tag Archives: depth of field

Exercise: Depth of Field

(This shall forever be known as the too-many-yellow-rulers lesson. Sorry!)

f32Up ’til now, you’ve been just reading the exercises and maybe doing them in your head, but not getting the camera out and trying them yourself. It’s OK– I’m lazy too. This one is different though. You’ll want to get the camera and do the exercise. If you don’t, I’ll hunt you down and scowl at you.

In this exercise, you’ll get firsthand experience with how aperture affects depth of field. In order to do the exercise, you’ll need a large flat surface with some sort of measurements, or sharp regular pattern. Some things that would work well:

  • a tile floor with high-contrast lines
  • a striped or checkered blanket with high-contrast lines
  • a long tape measure

You’ll need about five feet of this patterned surface, and you’ll need to be able to get fairly close to it, so that you’re looking down the length of it. See the tape measure picture at the top for an example of what I mean. You’ll also need enough light to take a steady picture at f/16.

Set your camera to aperture priority mode, f/16, and manual focus. If you’re not in a very bright area, set your ISO to 1600, or as high as your camera will go.

Stand near your patterned surface so that you’re looking down the length of it. Pick a spot in the middle, and manually focus on it. Remember that spot, because you’ll be coming back to it. Once you have the image in focus, take a picture.

Without changing your position, change the aperture to f/8. Point your camera at the exact same spot, and take another picture. Do the same thing at f/4, and as wide as your lens will go.

f4f8f16

Pull the photos into your computer where you can examine them more closely, and you should have a set that looks something like the photos above. The photo taken at f/4 will have a narrow band in the center that’s in focus, and the rest will be blurry. The f/8 photo will have a wider focus area, and f/16 will be much wider.

For extra credit: repeat the exercise, but this time don’t take pictures. Instead, use the depth-of-field preview button on your camera to see what the shots would look like. Feel free to try out the apertures in between the ones I suggested too. You should see a much smoother transition of focus than at the widely-spaced apertures, of course.

The astute… OK, the barely-conscious reader will notice that the example photos in this exercise are also in the page header. I originally shot these as examples when I was teaching SSA! as a live class, and I wanted samples to hand out. I was happy when I saw the results. The students in the class seemed to grok depth of field as soon as they saw the images, and they had a field day duplicating them with their own cameras.

Now it’s time for you to go out and play. Put your camera in aperture priority mode, and wander around taking pictures. Create some blurry backgrounds and some crisp ones, just like you’ve always done, but this time do it on purpose. You have the power– use it.

Next lesson:  ISO: What is it?

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Depth of Field: Another View

We already know that depth of field is how much of your picture is in focus. In particular, it’s what distances from your lens are in focus. Is it a narrow range? A wide one?

Here are a few sample images that show you how depth of field actually works. I took these very carefully– I placed the camera on a tripod, and focused at exactly the 12-inch mark on the ruler. I made sure to keep everything lined up as carefully as possible, and then took shots at f/4, f/8, f/16, and f/32. Most lenses don’t go down to f/32, but this one did so it was good for shooting these sample photos:

f/4f/8
f/16f/32

At f/4, pretty much the only thing that’s in focus is the 12-inch mark itself– you can’t even read any of the other numbers. At f/8, you can start to see the numbers 11 and 13 come into focus, though they’re still a little soft. At f/16 the numbers 10-14 are pretty clear, and you can actually make out other numbers. At f/32 you can read the entire visible length of the tape measure, and the majority of it is fairly sharp.

I recommend clicking through on the above images and studying the larger images, since they give you a pretty good idea of how the depth of field breaks down as a percentage of the image. If you have a Flickr account, you can click the “all sizes” link above the photos to see them in their original eight-megapixel glory.

The astute reader will notice that these are the same images that are at the top of every page on this blog. I originally took them to use as examples when I was teaching Stop Shooting Auto! as a class for my coworkers, and I instantly loved them. They seemed to produce an aha! moment for everyone who saw them.

Let’s go back to our six-year-old’s landcscape for a bit. I’ve added something to the illustration this time– an indicator of what percentage of the image would probably be in focus at various apertures. The places where there’s a straight yellow line are the areas that will probably be in focus, and the angled lines indicate what will be out of focus– it’ll be just a little bit soft close to the solid yellow line, and stuff far away will be very blurry. Note that I guessed at these based on my experience rather than using any super-magical scientific math wizardry to figure it out. Treat them as rough guidelines rather than hard scientific fact.

Here’s how it might look at f/4:

MountainFlower f/4

and at f/8:

MountainFlower f/8

and finally, at f/16:

MountainFlower f/16

Clearly, if we want our image to be in focus across pretty much the whole range, we should use f/16 or smaller. If we want to blur most of the image, we should use a large aperture like f/4.

How am I doing? Is aperture less scary now? Does it sort of make sense?

Next lesson:  Exercise: Depth of Field

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Filed under Aperture, Lesson